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Paper 7

The Lancers Quadrilles

Contributed by Paul Cooper, Research Editor

A previous paper has discussed the First Set of Quadrilles. In this article we'll consider the other incredibly successful Quadrille Set from the Regency era, The Lancers1. There were several versions of The Lancers in circulation, we're going to learn about their origin and history during the greater Regency era.

Figure 1. Cover of a c.1857 reprint of The Lancers' Quadrilles, Duval of Dublin's Second Set

There are two main variants of The Lancers, those of John Duval, and of Joseph Binns Hart. There has been debate about which version came first; my research is firmly in support of Duval's primacy. Duval's Set are made up of five separate Quadrilles, La Dorset, Lodoiska, La Native, Les Graces and Les Lanciers; they're a lovely set of dances, and easily my favourite Quadrille Set. They were first published in 1817, by the early 1820s they had become the most popular Quadrille Set in England, second only to the First Set.

Duval of Dublin

Duval was a second generation dance master. His father had, presumably, left France at some point in the second half of the 18th century. There is anecdotal evidence that John Duval (senior) was married in Liverpool in 17642. By 1797 Duval senior was working at the Theatre-Royal in Dublin3, a year later he was advertising his new Rooms and his ability to teach dancing and fencing4. There was also a prominent dance master in London in the 1780s called Mr Wall du Val, I've no reason to believe he was related to the Duval's of Dublin, though there could be a connection.

By 1807 Duval Junior was advertising his own dancing business in Dublin, promising that he continues teaching all the most Fashionable Dances, he attends Schools both in Town and Country5. He spent his 18176 and 18187 winters in Liverpool; the Liverpool Mercury for March 6th 1818 included Duval's advert, he said that he teaches Dancing, in a peculiarly elegant and graceful stile, in a system entirely new, and calculated to facilitate the improvement of the Pupil beyond any thing heretofore invented. By mid 1818 his business had grown sufficiently that he moved his academy to the Ball Room at the Rotunda, one of the most fashionable venues in Dublin8. In 1819 he advertised that he was late from London and Paris9. He was also publishing Quadrilles at this time, in January 1818 he announced publication of his third Set10, and in December 1818 he announced his 4th and 5th Sets11. His 6th Set, known as the Louvre Quadrilles, were published in 1821.

The Quadrille was a dance form we've investigated in other papers, it had already enjoyed a rich history in Dublin by 1817. French Cotillion dances (a predecessor to the Quadrille) were sold in Dublin in the 1770s (e.g. Saunders's News-Letter, 15th March 1773), and dancing masters such as Signor Callori (Saunders's News-Letter, 11th April 1778) and Mr Dempsey (Dublin Evening Post, 12th November 1782) taught them. Dances explicitly identified as Quadrilles were introduced in the 1780s. A Fete conducted by Mr Castro in 1784 at Dublin's Rotunda promised The four Parts of the World will be distinguished by a most elegant Quadrille Dance (Saunders's News-Letter, 10th March 1784). Monsieur Landrin, son of the Composer of the Cotillon Figures to her Majesty the Queen of France and Royal Family had been teaching them since at least 1785 (Dublin Evening Post, 15th January 1785). By 1790 he'd been joined by Mr Fontaine who taught Quadrilles, and a variety of other most fashionable Dances (Dublin Evening Post, 1st April 1790) and Mr Dempsey who taught fancy Minuets, Gavotes, Ballets, and Quadrilles (Dublin Evening Post, 6th February 1790). An 1814 ball at the Rotunda was described as including quadrille, waltzes, and country dances, (Saunders's News-Letter, 7th May 1814). The Quadrille had enjoyed a similarly rich history in England, the two somewhat isolated traditions may have evolved separately; Duval was able to draw upon an indigenous experience of Quadrille Dancing when choreographing his Quadrilles, in addition to the newly fashionable Quadrille conventions that were arriving from England.

Duval did have family in London. One of his sisters had married a London based dancing master called Mr Burghall around 1801 (Morning Chronicle, 16th January 1802). Burghall advertised that he had some New Irish Steps ... acquired from his brother-in-law, Mr. Duval, and subsequently visited Dublin. Duval had visited both London and Bath in 1797 (Saunders's News-Letter, 16th November 1797) and probably made numerous other trips.

Figure 2. The first report of Duval's Lancers, April 22nd 1817. With Thanks to Irish Newspaper Archives (www.irishnewsarchive.com).

Duval's Second Set

Most of Duval's Quadrilles have been forgotten, but his second Set1 were different (see Figure 1). The earliest reference I've found to them is from April 22nd 1817. We're told in an advert in the Freeman's Journal that This Day is Published four quadrilles as danced at the Countess of Farnham's Ball on Wednesday, the 9th of April, 1817; at the Nobilities' Assemblies; and at the Rotunda. The music by Yaniewicz and Spagnoletti. The Figures by Mr. Duval12 (see Figure 2). A few days earlier the Journal reported that The Countess of Farnham held a Grand Ball and Supper on Wednesday April 9th, 1817, attended by nearly 300 fashionables13.

The advert, by Dublin based publisher J. Willis mentions four of the dances that make up Duval's Lancers: La Dorset, Lodoiska, La Native, and The Lancers. Willis doesn't mention Les Graces, I'll investigate that in a moment, but let's first consider the four dances that Willis does name:

  • La Dorset: This appears to be named after the Duchess of Dorset. She was living in Dublin at this time, and hosted several popular balls14; the music is by Spagnoletti.

    Spagnoletti was a celebrated musician from the King's Theatre Opera House in London, he visited Dublin several times during his career. Spagnoletti's December 1816 advert in the Freeman's Journal indicates that at the request of several persons of distinction, he is induced to remain some time in Dublin, for the purpose of giving instructions on the Violin15 (see Figure 3). Presumably he met Duval, and they worked on this Quadrille together. The dance contains a distinctive figure called The Cage; Duval invented this figure, Willis refers to it as the much admired Cage Figure in his 1822 advert for Duval's 5th Set16, and emphasised that the Lancers introduced the much admired Cage Figure in his advert for the 1820 Second Edition of The Lancers.
  • Lodoiska: The music for this dance was adapted from a popular Opera. There were several operatic versions circulating at this time: Cherubini's 1791 Lodoïska; Kreutzer's 1791 Lodoiska17 (see Figure 4), Kemble's 1794 version of the same name, and Mayr's 1796 La Lodoiska. Duval credit's his version to Rodolphe Kreutzer. It became a common practice in the 1820s to adapt operatic music to Quadrille dancing, this is a relatively early example. Lodoiska had been performed several times in Dublin in 181618, it was presumably a popular tune.
  • La Native: Duval tells us that this tune is from The Beggars' Opera, another Opera playing in Dublin in 181619. According to Wikipedia, it was a ballad opera written by John Gay in 1728, with music arranged by Johann Christoph Pepusch20. I don't know the significance of the name La Native, the word 'native' only appears once in The Beggar's Opera itself (in Air LXIV), according to Google21.
  • Figure 3. Spagnoletti in Dublin, December 1816. With Thanks to Irish Newspaper Archives (www.irishnewsarchive.com).

  • Les Lanciers: Willis named this dance in English as The Lancers, but Duval used the French name. This Quadrille provides the name by which the entire set became known. The music is by Felix Yaniewicz; Yaniewicz co-owned a music shop in Liverpool22, but he was a regular visitor in Dublin. He performed in many concerts, and was described as the Leader of the Band in an 1817 advert for a Grand Concert at the Rotunda (by command of her Grace, the Duchess of Dorset23). A brief biography of Yaniewicz is available in the 1824 A Dictionary of Musicians24.

Yaniewicz, Spagnoletti and Duval were regularly mentioned in Dublin's newspapers around 1817. Their celebrity, combined with that of The Countess of Farnham and The Duchess of Dorset, must have helped to promote these dances in Ireland.

The Lancers happened to be published in Dublin at the same time as the Quadrille dance form was experiencing a dramatic rise in popularity in England; the Lancers were sufficiently different from the London Quadrilles to excite interest.

Figure 4. The Celebrated Overture of Lodoiska, composed by Kreutzer

Les Graces

There's a good reason that Willis didn't mention Les Graces in his advert. It was a popular and established Quadrille in London, well known at the time. Duval didn't create this dance, and was unable to credit the composer (it's the only uncredited music in the Set). It contains a particularly distinctive figure similar to The Triumph figure from Country Dancing.

Figure 5 is a caricature of this distinctive figure25, published in May 1817. The title Les Graces de Chesterfield indicates that Les Graces is a well known dance (it has to be, or contemporary readers would have missed part of the joke); the de Chesterfield suffix appears to poke fun at the Duchess of Devonshire whose country home was at Chatsworth, a few miles from Chesterfield. As a Duchess, she would be addressed as Your Grace. The Devonshire family had been promoters of Quadrille dancing since at least 1811, this picture hints that their friends had the same inelegant dancing moments as everyone else! There were two variants of this caricature published, Figure 5 is the second and more political version. The original is available through the Lewis Walpole Library; it was published in London on the same day as the Countess of Farnham held her Ball in Dublin, this futher emphasises that Les Graces pre-dates The Lancers.

The Les Graces Quadrille had previously been published in London as part of James Paine's 1816 3rd Set of Quadrilles. Edward Payne also included it in the second edition of his 5th Set of Quadrilles c.1817 (it replaced a Quadrille called L'Arabelle from the first edition). The Scottish writer Barclay Dun included Les Graces in his Third Set of Parisian Quadrilles in 1818 (they in turn are from band leader Nathaniel Gow's c.1817 Third New Set of Quadrilles, Waltzes, & Spanish Country Dances, though Gow isn't credited). The Scottish variant uses slightly different figures to the London variant. Google have a facsimile of Dun's book26, but unfortunately it's missing the page that documents this dance; a transcript is available that provides the missing information27. Dun also documented a Quadrille called La Finale-Lodoiska from Edward Payne's c.1816 3rd Set, it has different figures to Duval's version, though the music is similar. The Cheltenham Chronicle for December 25th 1817 carried a report of the Berkley Hunt Ball and Supper that featured both Les Graces and La Finale-Lodoiska, amongst many other Quadrilles28. George Shade included Les Graces in his 3rd set of Quadrilles of date unknown, but they probably post-date Duval's use of the dance (Shade's 3rd Set is entirely made up of Quadrilles borrowed from Payne and Paine).

J. S. Pollock in his c.1830 La Terpsichore Moderne reported that Les Graces is a peculiar figure, which although commonly danced in Paris, is but seldom introduced in this country, as in the Third and Tenth of Pain's sets and Duval's Lancers; to perform it properly, the instruction of a master will be indispensable.. Amongst its other oddities, Les Graces is 20 bars long and is played through eight times, unlike most other Quadrilles; the four men take turns to lead the figure, then the four ladies repeat it. It shares some of these characteristics with another popular French figure dance of the era called La Batteuse.

The earliest edition of Duval's The Lancers that I've seen is a facsimile of the third edition, it's in Volume 7 of Dr. John Gardiner-Garden's Historic Dance29 series. It's effectively the same as the version in Figure 1, but can't be dated to a specific year. I'm lucky enough to be in possession of a hand written copy of Duval's Second set, on paper watermarked for 1818 (but otherwise undatable), this copy is also identical to the version in Figure 1. The earliest independently datable document I've found that shows Les Graces alongside the other dances from The Lancers is a newspaper advert for Willis' A Selection of Quadrilles, Dances and Waltzes from 181830 (see Figure 6). It uses the French name Les Lanciers.

Figure 5. Les Graces de Chesterfield, May 1817. Courtesy of The Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University.

The Lancers, the Early Years

The Lancers Quadrilles originated in Dublin, but their influence soon spread to Britain. At some point Yaniewicz began selling copies from his shop in Liverpool. His 1821 advert in the Liverpool Mercury claims that they are just published and that The Public are particularly requested to observe, that no copy of the Lancers' Quadrille can be correct, or lawfully sold, unless published for and signed by Mr. Yaniewicz31 (emphasis in the original, see Figure 7). By 1821 the Lancers' popularity had grown exponentially, and alternative versions were circulating.

Incidentally, Yaniewicz's copyright only applied to Les Lanciers; it was eventually (according to a footnote in later editions of Duval's Lancers) transferred to Willis, and then to Messrs Cocks & Co32. Earlier versions of Duval's Lancers explicitly stated that the Les Lanciers Air is published by permission of Mr. Yaniewicz.

A brief report in the Freeman's Journal for 1821 says It must be highly flattering to our countryman, Mr. Duval, that the Set of Quadrilles composed by him, called the Lancers, should now be so much the fashion in Bath, where we understand there is nothing else danced33. An 1822 advert for the 5th edition as sold in London by M. A. Burke refers to them as highly celebrated and unrivalled (New Times, 24th June 1822).

Amusing anecdotes begin to surface around this time of socialites who are unaware of The Lancers. An 1821 story in The Etonian tells of a lady who was asked if she was fond of the Lancers, we're told that she answered with a blush and a frown. The story continues Upon after-consideration, we are sure that the Lady was thinking of a set of dashing young officers instead of a set of Quadrilles34. The Manchester Iris in 1822 contains the first-hand story of a young man who ruined a Quadrille by attempting to dance the First Set figures when the rest of the company were dancing The Lancers35.

Figure 6. Willis' New Quadrilles, 1818. With Thanks to Irish Newspaper Archives (www.irishnewsarchive.com).

At least four other Quadrille Sets called The Lancers were in circulation by 1821. The Morning Chronicle newspaper for April 14th 1819 included an advert for White's Quadrilles, this collection includes a Quadrille called The Lancers. John Charles White ran a music shop in Bath, his Lancers were his 21st Set of Quadrilles. White's advert says the public in general are cautioned against purchasing Dances under the same names, or names resembling the above, which are quite different36. His Lancers have nothing in common with those of Duval, other than the name, the music and figures are quite different; we've animated them here. White also published an English Country Dance called The Lancers.

A second collection was mentioned in the Morning Post for 16th October 1821, it refers to Quadrilles called The Lancers by Parry37. John Parry's quadrilles were called The New Lancier's Fashionable Quadrilles, the copy at the British Library is printed on paper watermarked for 1820. Parry's Lancers consist of eight Quadrilles and a Finale, and once again they have nothing in common with those of Duval, other than the name.

The other new versions were the 1820 Les Lanciers of Joseph Binns Hart, and the c.1821 Original Lancers by G.M.S. Chivers. They are different to Duval's Set, but related; Hart's version claims to recreate a Welsh variant as danced by the nobility & gentry at Tenby, in the summer, 1819 (see Figure 9). Chivers' version (see Figure 10) is a minor variant of Hart's.

Hart's Lancers

The origin of Hart's version of the Lancers is a little unclear. Hart called his Set Les Lanciers; they're very similar to Duval's Lancers, and offer a simplified set of figures. He changed some of the titles, and replaced Les Graces with a different dance, L'Etoile. Hart's La Dorset uses the figures and music from Duval's La Native, and Hart introduced a dance called La Rose which uses the figures from Duval's La Dorset. Hart's Quadrilles are simpler than Duvals; for example, they omit the much admired Cage Figure.

I've been able to compare several copies of Hart's Lanciers, including an 1820 first edition and a c.182538 4th edition. A copy of the 4th edition is available online39, though it's missing its cover; I've authenticated it through comparison to a copy at the British Library. The 4th edition are made up of La Rose, La Lodoiska, La Dorset, L'Etoile and Les Lanciers.

I don't know how Hart came to publish his version. He clearly had access to Duval's music, and knew the names of some of the dances, but the figures are slightly different. Perhaps he had a musician's hand written copy of the music, and wrote the figures from memory? It's unlikely to have been plagiarism in the modern sense, as dances were often copied (for example, consider how Les Graces came to be included in Duval's Lancers, or the Country Dance Captain Wyke). I suspect that he either knowingly and deliberately simplified Duval's version, or the nobility and gentry at Tenby did. I have two main reasons to think this:

Hart subtitled his version as Les Lanciers, a second set of Quadrilles and described them as having entirely new figures. This could imply that they are Hart's second Set of Quadrilles, but a different Set is known by that name40. So perhaps Hart was acknowledging his variant as a second version of Duval's original. As it happens, they may genuinely have been Hart's second Set of Quadrilles to be published, though I suspect they were his third or fourth. The 1820 Quadrille Set that eventually came to be known as Hart's Third Set was subtitled The Hussars40 and were presumably intended to be a sequel to The Lancers.
Figure 7. Yaniewicz's advert, 1821.
Image © THE BRITISH LIBRARY BOARD. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Image reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive (www.britishnewspaperarchive.co.uk)
There are alterations introduced to Hart's figures between the 2nd and 4th editions of his Lanciers. The differences in the 1825 4th edition correct what appear to be mistakes in the 1st edition, and cause later editions to be more similar to those of Duval. The key differences are that the order of the 4th and 5th Quadrilles are transposed (the first edition had the Les Lanciers Quadrille in 4th position, and L'Etoile in 5th), and the initial figure of La Rose is taken away from the first Gentleman and given instead to the first Lady. The correction of mistakes strongly imply that Hart's Quadrilles are derived from Duval's.

Yaniewicz's 1821 statement in Figure 7 is tantalisingly unclear, it's possible (though unlikely) that he was advertising Hart's version of The Lancers, having separately licensed his copyright for the Les Lanciers music. It's notable that a W. Burton Hart was employed as a dancing master in Swansea from at least 1805 (The Cambrian, 26th October 1805); it's possible that they were related, and that W.B. Hart was present at the 1819 Ball at Tenby at which the Lancers were danced, and was Joseph's immediate source of information. W. Burton Hart published a collection of Country Dances for 1812 called Cambrian Trifles, the subtitle to which implied an awareness of the fashionable dancing at Tenby.

A Mr Hart, probably Joseph but potentially a family member, advertised his services in London as a professor of dancing between 1820 and 1822. This teacher emphasised that he taught Quadrilles - Les Lanciers (The Times, 24th December, 1822). One of the adverts hint that this teacher had the initial T., which is either a misprint or indicates that it wasn't Joseph himself. It's possible that Joseph provided the music while a relation specialised in teaching the figures.

However it came about, Joseph Hart's simplified Lanciers were published in London in 1820, and helped to fuel the interest in The Lancers. Hart himself went on to publish many more Quadrille Sets, including the Der Freyschutz (his 10th Set, in 1823); this Set was singled out by Thomas Wilson in his 1824 Danciad as being both popular and trite or wretched stuff41. It featured figures derived from The Hussars.

The author of the c.1830 The Fashionable Quadrille Preceptor described Duval's Lancers as Lancers - First Set and Hart's as Lancers - Second set (Usually known as Hart's Set). This could imply that Duval's version was preferred by London's dancers. Wilson affirmed The Lancers popularity by complaining in his 1824 Danciad that many Quadrille dancers only know the figures to the First Set and the Lancers42, and refuse to learn anything else. R. Hill, author of the 1822 A Guide to the Ball Room documented Duval's version of the Lancers in his book, but only included Hart's version in the 1830 edition under the Additional Quadrilles appendix; he did however call Hart's version the Original Lancers (a reference to the variant published by G.M.S. Chivers). These documents hint that Duval's version was better known.

It appears that Willis was concerned about the popularity of Hart's version, he published an advert in 1826 emphasising that the Public are particularly cautioned against spurious Editions of this Set of Quadrilles, and are requested to observe that no other Set can contain the whole of the original tunes but those bearing the signature of 'J. Willis'43 (see Figure 8). Willis was unequivocal, he firmly supported Duval's Lancers as the official and original version.

Figure 8. Willis' Lancers' advert, 1826.

The Original Lancers by G.M.S. Chivers (see Figure 10) derives from Hart's version. The word original is misleading in this context, Chivers published at least eight Quadrille Sets by 1822 prefixed with this word, including his version of the First Set (he called them his Original Parisians). He can't possibly be the originator of the First Set, so the word original can't be taken too literally - either it only applied to the music, or Chivers believed his notation to be an accurate reproduction of the original. It's possible that Chivers did collaborate with Hart over the figures for Hart's Lanciers, they shared other Quadrille figures (such as those of The Original Caledonians), and Hart explicitly credited Chivers as supplying the figures for his 3rd and 4th Sets of Scotch Quadrilles. But it's unlikely that Chivers' version was published before 1821. Chivers' Original Lancers were made up of La Rousseau, La Parmesane, The Dorset, L'Amusette and De Berri, the figures are those of Hart's Les Lanciers (the first edition, not the revised version).

The Ventagli Quadrille Fan44, tentatively dated to 1816, contains figures for the First Set on one side, and Hart's Lanciers on the other. If the Fan's 1816 date was confirmed, it would represent significant new evidence, and date Hart's Lanciers before those of Duval! I suspect the correct date of the Fan should be 1820 or later.

It's unclear which version of The Lancers was preferred in the 1820s, but an 1824 review of Mr Lloyd's Quadrilles says that they promise to eclipse the popularity of Duval's celebrated Lancers45. They didn't, but the explicit reference to Duval hints that his was the more popular version. The Lancers waned in popularity in the 1830s, but Hart's version was subsequently revived. Many new Lancers' variants emerged during the Victorian era in England, Ireland, the Colonies, and elsewhere in Europe; these new variants were usually derived from Hart's version of the Lancers. Many later writers report that Hart invented The Lancers, that mistake is still repeated today. It's likely that Chivers' original prefix was a significant cause of that confusion.

Figure 9. Hart's 1820 Les Lanciers, a Second Set of Quadrilles with entirely New Figures


Les Lanciers, a Mystery

A different version of the fifth Quadrille, Les Lanciers, circulated in Scotland from at least 1822. Alexander Strathy included this dance in his 1822 Elements of the Art of Dancing46. His version is related to that of Duval and Hart, with significant differences. It was also included in the Lowe brothers' 1831 third edition of their Ball Conductor and Assembly Guide, which was first published in Glasgow in 1822. Ellis Rogers in The Quadrille47 calls this a Scottish variant of the dance, and identifies a couple of later sources that retained Strathy's version. It's perhaps significant that the advert in Figure 7 explicitly states that The Lancers (as sold by Yaniewicz) were being danced in Edinburgh by 1821, hinting that the Scottish variant is derived from Duval's by way of Yaniewicz. Willis himself published his Select Collection of Popular Airs, No, 7 no later than 1822 in Dublin containing a New Set of Quadrilles to Pain's First Set, with the Finale of the Lancers (Dublin Weekly Register, 6th April 1822), which suggests that Les Lanciers evolved separately to the rest of the Lancers.

Another interesting possibility is offered by John Gardiner-Garden in volume 7 of Historic Dance29. He makes an argument for Strathy having recorded an older version of Les Lanciers from France, and that Duval adopted this older original (much as Les Graces was adopted). Duval may have invented the name Les Lanciers, in which case Strathy accepted that name; or the entire dance may be older. Rogers identifies two c.1825 French dances that are similar to Les Lanciers: La Malboroug and La Nouvelle Panurge. These dances may have been influenced by Duval's Les Lanciers, or they may be examples of an older tradition from which Les Lanciers itself is derived. For example, all three dances share a passing similarity with a c.1769 Cotillion published in England by Mr. Villeneuve Junior, called La Ballet Hollandoise.

A further possibility is that Yaniewicz supplied the name Les Lanciers along with the music; he was Polish, and may have named his music after the Uhlans, his nation's own celebrated regiments of Lancers.

Unfortunately I'm unable to shed any further light on these issues.

With the exception of the Cage figure, each individual element of Duval's Lancers can be found in dances by other choreographers (for a description of The Cage see Durang's 1856 guide48). Duval may have brought all the material together, arranged some tunes and allocated some names, but the Quadrilles themselves are related to earlier works and are part of the grand and international tradition of dancing.

That concludes my investigation into the early evolution of The Lancers. Many questions remain unanswered however, so if you can provide new clues, do please get in touch. For example, several authorities assert that Duval wrote the Lancers for the troops in Dublin; I've not found any evidence to support this theory, I'd be interested to know if any such evidence exists.

I've not discussed how to dance The Lancers. You can use the animations here at RegencyDances.org to help learn both Duval's and Hart's versions, or for the academically minded, I can recommend Ellis Rogers' The Quadrille47 and volume 7 of John Gardiner-Garden's Historic Dance29.

Figure 10. Chivers' 4th Set of Quadrilles, c.1821 The Original Lancers.



1. Duval, 1817, The Lancers' Quadrilles

2. Rootschat, Dublin dancing master 1770-1800

3. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Apr 13, 1797: An advert for the Theatre-Royal mentions a new dance by Mr Duval

4. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Oct 04, 1798: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval, Senior

5. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Nov 28, 1807: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval, Junior

6. Liverpool Mercury, Feb 07, 1817: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval

7. Liverpool Mercury, Mar 06, 1818: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval

8. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Jan 30, 1818: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval

9. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Dec 30, 1819: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval, Junior

10. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Jan 28, 1818: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval

11. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Dec 24, 1818: An advert in the name of Mr. Duval

12. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Apr 22, 1817: An advert for New Quadrilles

13. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Apr 11, 1817: Fashionable Intelligence

14. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Jun 28, 1817: An advert in the name of Mr. Yaniewicz

15. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Dec 31, 1816: An advert in the name of Signor Spagnoletti

16. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Apr 13, 1822: An advert for Willis' Music Shop

17. Kreutzer, 1791, Lodoiska

18. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Feb 01, 1816: An advert for the Theatre Royal

19. Greene, 2011, Theatre in Dublin, 1745-1820: A Calendar of Performances, Volume 6

20. Wikipedia, The Beggar's Opera

21. Gay, 1760 The Beggar's Opera

22. Liverpool Mercury, Feb 09, 1821: An advert for Yaniewicz and Weiss's Music Warehouse

23. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Jun 28, 1817: An advert for Mr Yaniewicz's Night

24. Gerber et. al., 1824, A Dictionary of Musicians

25. Fores, 1817, Les graces de Chesterfield, or Quadrille dancing pour la pratique

26. Dun, 1818, A Translation of Nine of the Most Fashionable Quadrilles

27. Dun, 1818, A Translation of Nine of the Most Fashionable Quadrilles (transcript)

28. Cheltenham Chronicle, And Gloucestershire Advertiser, Dec 25, 1817: Home News

29. Gardiner-Garden, 2013, Historic Dance, Volume VII

30. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, May 27, 1818: An advert in the name of J. Willis

31. Liverpool Mercury, Feb 09, 1821: An advert for Yaniewicz and Weiss's Music Warehouse

32. Duval, c.1857, The Lancers' Quadrilles

33. Freeman's Journal, Dublin, Nov 29, 1821: News

34. Knight et. al, 1821, The Etonian

35. Manchester Iris, Jun 29, 1822, The Pons Asinorum

36. The Morning Chronicle, London, Apr 14, 1819: Advert for White's Quadrilles

37 The Morning Post, London, Oct 16, 1821: 'Margate'

38. Ayrton, 1825, The Harmonicon

39. Hart, 1820, Anonymous Lancers Set

40. Ayrton, 1824, The Harmonicon

41. Wilson, 1824, The Danciad

42. Wilson, 1824, The Danciad

43. Ayrton, 1826, The Harmonicon

44. Fan, Hand written instructions for Hart's Lancers

45. The Morning Post, London, Dec 14, 1824: News

46. Strathy, 1822, Elements of the Art of Dancing

47. Rogers, 2008, The Quadrille, 4th Edition

48. Durang, 1856, The Fashionable Dancer's Casket











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